Monday, May 20, 2013

Digital Bangladesh Vision 2021

Digital Bangladesh Vision 2021 will need from both Public and Private sector an infusion of resources, leadership and ICT centered development if it is to be made meaningful. Over the last few decades, the world has been shifting from industrial to knowledge-based societies; the ability of a nation to use and create knowledge capital determines its capacity to empower and enable its citizens by increasing human capabilities. Easy access to knowledge, creation and preservation of knowledge systems, dissemination of knowledge and better knowledge services should be core concerns of the Digital Bangladesh Vision 2021. Bangladesh should be part of a well-crafted national strategy and “Digital Bangladesh”, needs to be the cornerstone strategy for Bangladesh. We have to build a people-centered, development-oriented Information Society, where everyone would be able to access, utilize and share information and knowledge easily and efficiently. The concept of Digital Bangladesh should be centered on the creation of what is popularly termed as a "knowledge- based society," Information and communication technologies (ICTs) are a critical component for building this knowledge-society. Our ability in creating and disseminating knowledge will eventually drive the nation’s growth in the coming days. A digital society ensures an ICT- driven knowledge-based society where information will be readily available online and where all possible tasks of the government, semi-government and also private spheres will be processed using state of the art technology. The first and foremost challenge to materialize the Digital Bangladesh Vision 2021 would be to ensure overall connectivity at an affordable cost. With the intent to enhance connectivity emphasis should be provided on the establishment of infrastructures to “Connect the Unconnected” and importance must be given on laying more optical fiber to reach the marginal people of the country. Digital Bangladesh Vision 2021 should establish technology- driven e-governance which includes e-administration, e-education, e-health, e-commerce, e- production, e-agriculture, etc. in the five focus areas of the knowledge paradigm:
1) Access to Knowledge 2) Knowledge concepts 3) Creation of Knowledge 4) Knowledge Applications 5) Delivery of Services 1. Access to Knowledge: Providing access to knowledge is the most fundamental way of increasing the opportunities and reach of individuals and groups. Therefore, means must exist for individuals who have the ability to receive and comprehend knowledge to readily obtain it. This also includes making accurate knowledge of the state and its activities available to the general public. Project, should be immediately initiated with an objective to facilitate the establishment of a firm presence of Bangladesh Government entities on the Web with two way communication capability or Web 2.0. The Program requires provision of an entire spectrum of web services to the Government sector as well as running specialized Portals for the benefit of citizens and other stakeholders. 2. Knowledge Concepts: Knowledge concepts are organized, distributed and transmitted through the education system and that’s why we need an NREN in Bangladesh. It is through education that an individual can make better informed decisions, keep abreast of important issues and trends around him or her and most importantly, question the socio-economic arrangements in a manner that can lead to change and development.
In fact, a successful "Digital Bangladesh" would need a more literate population. A mass computer-literacy program or even a government- sponsored computer course, offered perhaps as an incentive for every student who completes his or her secondary-school education, would benefit everyone. If there is will - backed by investment - there is a way. 3. Creation of Knowledge: A nation can develop in two ways – either it learns to use existing resources better, or it discovers new resources. Both activities involve creation of knowledge. This makes it important to consider all activities that lead to the creation of knowledge directly or help in protecting the knowledge that is created. To realize the aspirations of the 2021 vision, the country must be able to produce its own engineers, scientists and technological know-how.
4. Knowledge Applications: Knowledge can be productively applied to promote technological change and facilitate reliable and regular flow of information. This requires significant investment in goal-oriented research and development along with access models that can simplify market transactions and other processes within an industry. Initiatives in the areas of agriculture, small and medium enterprises (SMEs) and traditional knowledge can demonstrate that knowledge can be very effectively applied for the betterment of the rural poor. 5. Delivery of Services: Knowledge services have the potential to simplify many different points at which citizens interact with the State. Traditionally, these points of interaction have been vulnerable to unscrupulous activities and rent-seeking. We need to set the bureaucracy under an e- governance initiative, with a transparent file tracking system that the public can access. This will, right away, reduce corruption, because everyone involved in the process can be tracked down. Technology provides us with an opportunity to ensure accountability, transparency and efficiency in government services. E-governance is one of the ways in which citizens can be empowered to increase transparency of government functioning, leading to greater efficiency and productivity. E-Governance aims to place the government within the reach of all citizens increasing transparency and citizen's participation. Thus, the development of e-Governance should promote universal access to government's services, integrate administrative systems, networks, and databases, and make such information available to the citizen via Internet. In a nutshell such e-Governance should transform the government into a citizen centric technological driven one. There are various dimensions to building a Digital Bangladesh, all of which are equally important pillars. A Digital Bangladesh may constitute the following goals:

1) Build excellence in the educational system to meet the knowledge challenges of the 21st century by strengthening the education system, promote domestic research and innovation, facilitate knowledge application in sectors like health, agriculture, and industry. 2) Leverage information and communication technologies to enhance governance and improve connectivity that allows ICT-based services to be deployed equitably throughout his nation. 3) Devise mechanisms for exchange and interaction between knowledge systems in the Global arena. 4) Promote creation of knowledge in S&T laboratories that utilizes information technologies and communication networks for dissemination and exchange of knowledge. 5) Promote knowledge applications in agriculture and industry so that they can use ICTs for marketing and promotion of its products, for producing internal efficiencies, and for communication and transaction between entities. 6) Promote the use of knowledge capabilities in making government an effective, transparent and accountable service provider to the citizen and promote widespread sharing of knowledge to maximize public benefit.


As we say goodbye to the year 2012, we might take time out to reflect on our achievements and failures in the year gone by, examine our prospects for the future and the challenges that lie ahead. Religious extremism leading to terrorist activities is one such area that needs to be reviewed. While many South Asian countries are deeply embroiled in the fight against terrorism, Bangladesh had generally been free from terrorist attacks since 2005. As we tended to relax, two incidents in 2012 brought our focus back to the terrorism issue. The first was the burning and looting of the houses and temples of the Buddhist communities in Cox’s Bazar area on 29-30 September. The second was the arrest on 17 October of a young Bangladeshi man caught while planning to bomb the Federal Reserve Building in New York, USA. As the year was coming to a close, the violence unleashed across the country by the Jamaat-e-Islami (JI), a right-wing Islamist party, sent us a clear signal of the growing strength of Islamist politics. 

we say goodbye to the year 2012, we might take time out to reflect on our achievements and failures in the year gone by, examine our prospects for the future and the challenges that lie ahead. Religious extremism leading to terrorist activities is one such area that needs to be reviewed. While many South Asian countries are deeply embroiled in the fight against terrorism, Bangladesh had generally been free from terrorist attacks since 2005. As we tended to relax, two incidents in 2012 brought our focus back to the terrorism issue. The first was the burning and looting of the houses and temples of the Buddhist communities in Cox’s Bazar area on 29-30 September. The second was the arrest on 17 October of a young Bangladeshi man caught while planning to bomb the Federal Reserve Building in New York, USA. As the year was coming to a close, the violence unleashed across the country by the Jamaat-e-Islami (JI), a right-wing Islamist party, sent us a clear signal of the growing strength of Islamist politics.
These are happening at a time when an avowed secular party, the Awami League (AL), is in power. AL won the 2008 election with a commitment to amend the constitution to restore its secular character. It also promised stern action against all forms of religious extremism and terrorism. Four years down the line, much of those promises remain unfulfilled. Constitutional reform was half-done; Islam remained a state religion. Religious parties are more organised today than ever before. Their student fronts are active in most educational institutions. While Islamists are active on political fronts, more radical amongst them are organising themselves for terrorist activities as and when opportunities appear.
Rise of Islamic extremism in Bangladesh
On 16 December 1971, we hoped that Bangladesh would emerge as a modern democratic state. The spirit of the nation was epitomised in the Constitution (1972) that adopted secularism as a state principle and prohibited the political use of religion. The Constitution barred the state from declaring any religion as state religion. However, it all changed after the killing of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and many top-ranking political leaders in 1975. Those who seized power at the time found the Islamists as their political ally and started islamising the society and the state. Islamist political parties, such as JI, started building their party structures. The power elites established thousands of madrassas that produced religiously indoctrinated youths who would be the front-line activists of the Islamist parties. Poor, jobless students from the madrassas became easy target of the recruiters of militant Islamist organisations. By late 1990s we had militant organisations such as Jamiatul Mujahedin Bangladesh (JMB) and Harkatul Jihad Al-Islami (HUJI) that took roots in Bangladesh.

Starting from 1999 to 2005, the militants bombed temples, churches, political rallies, cultural functions, cinema halls etc. The government and the opposition kept on blaming each other for those attacks. Even when grenades attack was made on the AL rally in Dhaka on 22 August 2004 killing 22 people and injuring the AL Chief Sheikh Hasina, the government blamed it on the opposition. The series bombing on 17 August 2005 finally compelled the government to come out of the denial mode and stand up to the terrorist threat. In 2006-07, we saw a series of arrests, prosecution and handing down of sentences, including death sentences, on some of the terror leaders. Since then there has been no major terror attack in Bangladesh, but that the terrorists are active is evident from the frequent arrests of activists and seizure of large cache of arms and explosives from their hideouts.

Bulk of the Islamic militants arrested so far had come from poor rural communities. Many were from the Quomi Madrassa background. However, recent years saw a new breed of extremists called the Hizb-ut-Tahrir (HuT). HuT members are drawn from children of urban, upper income parentage, educated in the mainstream or English medium schools and colleges. HuT is targeting the cream of our youth, the nation’s future, and therefore, poses a clear danger. It is feared that HuT has penetrated among schools and universities, professionals – engineers, doctors, government officials and even among the security apparatus. Although the party was banned in 2009, its clandestine activities continue in the country. On the political front, JI continued to grow in strength in Bangladesh. The party is small in size, but highly disciplined, well-organised and has a well-defined hierarchy. Jamaat’s aim is to establish a pure Islamic state based on Sharia. The party had opposed the Liberation War of Bangladesh in 1971 and actively collaborated in the genocide. Some of the top leaderships are now facing war-crime trial.

The party, therefore, is on a back foot now, but given the fact that a new election is around the corner, its rank and file might align with the major opposition party to make a bid for power. JI’s student wing, Islami Chattra Shibir (Islamic Students Front), is now a potent student organisation, from schools to universities. The other Islamist party of importance is Islami Oikyo Jote (Islamic Unity Front), a collection of small Islamic parties. Like JI, IOJ also wants to establish an Islamic state in Bangladesh, but there are differences in outlook. IOJ members are exclusively from Quomi madrassa background and more traditional. IOJ has been in the forefront, along with JI, in the movement to declare Ahmedia community as non-Muslims. Present government’s attempt to register Quomi Madrassas and reform their curriculum was thwarted by IOJ’s agitation.

None of the Islamist political parties gave open support to the militant activities, however, many of the JMB and HUJI activists had previously been members of Islamist political parties. The Islamist parties have multifarious social, economic and financial investments. Some of the largest banks, insurance, hospitals, diagnostic centres, schools, universities, coaching centres, and travel agencies are operated undercover by the Islamist parties. The Islamist parties have been gaining in strength in Bangladesh at the expense of the two major political parties – BNP and AL. Both parties at one time or other have been courting these parties in order to gain short term advantage over the other.
Countering the extremists
Bangladesh government has taken a number steps to check extremism and militancy. Notable among those are: Anti-Terrorism Act 2009 and Money Laundering Prevention Act 2009 as amended in 2011. The two acts provide for deterrent punishment to offenders in case they engage in acts of terror or launder money to support terrorism. Based on a series of dialogues, workshops and seminars, participated by academics, researchers, politicians, parliamentarians, civil and military officials, a national strategy to combat terrorism in the country has been proposed.Bangladesh has banned a total of six terrorist organizations, including JMB, HUJI and HuT. A number of Islamic NGOs have been banned who had terror links, including Revival of Islamic Heritage Society (Kuwait), Rabita Al Alam Al Islami (Saudi Arabia), and International Islamic relief Organization (Saudi Arabia), Muslim Aid (UK). More than 1,300 militants were arrested; most of them belonging to JMB, HUJI-B or HuT. 29 terrorist kingpins have been sentenced to death and many more sentenced to long imprisonment or are awaiting trial.While our police action has been commendable, we did not do enough on the social front.
We need to address urgently the problem of poverty, ignorance, and backwardness. Democratisation of the society is an insurance against extremist ideology. We need to improve governance and provide access to justice for the poor and downtrodden. We need to impart modern education to our youth that prepare them to face the challenges of a fast changing world. A thorough overhaul of madrassa education in our country is long overdue. We need an education system that produce people with high ethical and technical standards, a system that encourages freethinking rather than rote learning. Emergence of HuT points out a lack of pride and a sense of disillusionment among the children of affluent class. This is because English medium schools, where most of the rich parents send their children, follow a curriculum that has no relevance to our culture, history or traditions. Therefore, English medium school syllabus too needs a thorough review.Government must legislate not to allow use of religion to gain political mileage. We need to check creeping ‘Sudiaization’ of Islam. Along with the money from the ME donors, comes the ideological package of Wahhabi Islam which is alien to South Asia. One of the prices we pay for the remittance from our labour force in the ME is the influx of Saudi brand of Islam. How do we de-radicalise these migrant workers is a big challenge for us. Meanwhile, hundreds of extremists who are arrested or under trial must be segregated from other prisoners. At present, these extremists are finding a captive audience 24 hours at their disposal, busy recruiting new ones from among the prisoners. We need to isolate the extremists and start a de-radicalisation program so that when they return to the society they become useful citizen.Our effort to counter religious extremism must be supplemented by regional and global effort.
We need to have close cooperation and coordination between the governments of the region. Border monitoring, passport control, anti-money laundering measures, exchange of information on the movement of suspects, arrest and deportation of fugitives are some of the areas where regional countries could cooperate. Checking of arms smuggling across the porous border is another area where regional cooperation is the answer. In short, a total, comprehensive strategy has to be adopted for fighting religious extremism. If Bangladesh is to emerge as a modern, democratic state, the menace of extremism must be eliminated.

জিয়াকে ঠান্ডা মাথার খুনী বলেছেন আদালত।

জিয়াকে ঠান্ডা মাথার খুনী বলেছেন আদালত।
মার্কিন সাংবাদিক লরেন্স লিফশুজের সাক্ষ্য ও বিএনপি নেতাব্যারিস্টার ­ মওদুদ আহমদের বইয়ের লেখা এ রায়ে বিবেচনা করা হয়। এ প্রসঙ্গে আদালত বলেন, “ব্যারিস্টার মওদুদ আহমদ তার ‘ডেমোক্রেসি অ্যান্ড চ্যালেঞ্জ অব ডেভেলপমেন্ট: এ স্টাডি অবপলিটিক্যাল অ্যান্ড মিলিটারিইন্টারভ ­েনশান ইন বাংলাদেশ’ বইয়েলিখেছেন, এই বিচারের ট্রাইব্যুনাল গঠনের অনেক আগেই জেনারেল জিয়াউর রহমানপাকিস্তান ফেরত সামরিক অফিসারদের তুষ্ট করতে কর্নেল তাহেরকে ফাঁসি দেওয়ার মনস্থির করেছিলেন। জেনারেল মঞ্জুরের উদ্ধৃতি দিয়ে মার্কিন সাংবাদিক লিফশুজও একই বক্তব্য দিয়েছেন।”
এছাড়াও তৎকালীন ঢাকা জেলাম্যাজিস্ট্র ­ ­েট ড. এমএম শওকত আলী এবং সাহিত্যিক সাংবাদিক সৈয়দ বদরুল আহসানের লিখিত দাবিসহ অ্যামিকাস কিউরি জ্যেষ্ঠ আইনজীবীদের মতামতের ভিত্তিতে আদালত এ সিদ্ধান্তে আসেন যে, “কর্নেল তাহের বীর উত্তমের মৃত্যুর মুল আসামি জেনারেল জিয়াউর রহমান।”
মৌদুদ এখন কী কহিবেন? বি.এন.পিও বা কী কহিবে?

Genocide Bangalee Collaborators and War Criminals:Razakars Central Shanti Committee

Central Shanti Committee
Rapped victim of 1971 with her newly born baby

Name Where Now
Khaza Khayer Uddin Pakistan Muslim League leader
A.Q.M. Shafiqul Islam Advocate, Lahore Highr Court, has business in Bangladesh
Gulam Azam Amir, Jamat-i-Islami, Bangladesh
Mewlana Syed Muhammed Masum Central Majlish-i-Surah member, Ittehadul Ummah
Abdul Jabbar Kaddar Natural death after liberation
Mahmud Ali Minister, Pakistan Gov't
M.A.K. Rafiqul Islam unknown
Yusuf Ali Chowdhury(Mohon Miah) Natural death during liberation war
Abul Kashem Natural death after liberation
Gulam Sarwar Jamat's croney, Dawat-ul-Islam leader in London
Syed Azizul Haque(Nanna Miah) Center Leader, Ershad's Jatiya Party
A.S.M. Sulayman President, Bangladesh Krishak Sromik Party
Pir Muhsen Uddin(Dudu Miah) Vice-President, Bangladesh Democratic League
Shafiqur Rahman Chairman, Democratic Islamic League
Major(ret.) Afsar Uddin Ex President candidate, President: Democratic Party
Syed Muhsen Ali Industrialist, ex president of Dhaka Stock Exchange, ex director: IFIC Bank
Fazlul Kader Chowdhury Natural death after liberation
Muhammed Siraj Uddin Industrailist, Dhaka City Muslim League president
Advocate A.T. Saadi Retired advocate, Bangladesh Supreme Court
Advocate Ataul haque Khan Vice President, Bangladesh Muslim League
Makbulur Rahman Industrialist
Alhaj Muhammed Akil President, Bangladesh Nejame Islami Party
Principal Ruhul Kuddus Central Member, Bangladesh Jamat-i-Islami
Nurujjaman Industrialist, Director: Islamic Development Bank
Mewlana Miah Fazlul Haque Central Surah Member, Bangladesh Ittehadul Ummah
Advocate Abu Sakek Senior Advocate, Bangladesh Supreme Court
Advocate Abdun Naeem Natural death after liberation
Mewlana Siddik Ahmed Central Surah Member, Bangladesh Ittehadul Ummah
Abdul Matin Secretary General, Bangladesh Muslim League
Baristar Akhtar Uddin Lives in Saudi Arabia, Legal consultant: Saudia International
Tuaha Bin Habib Industrialist, Member: Central Majlish of Bangladesh Khelafat Andalon
Hakim Irtizaur Rahman Natural death after liberation
Raja Tridib Ray Living in Karachi, Pakistan
Fayez Bax President: Nikil Bangladesh Muslim League
P.S. 104 members of the Central Shanti Committee could not be found. All of the name above has been per published documents.
East Pakistan Shanti Committee
Name Where Now
Mewlana Farid Uddin, President Whereabouts unkonwn after liberation
Nurujjaman, General Secretary Ex director: Bangladesh Islamic Foundation Imam Prashikkan Course
Mewlana Abdul Mannan Ex Minister: Religious Affairs
Julmat Ali Khan Ex Vice President: BNP
A.K.M. Mujibul Haque Industrialist
Firoz Ahmed No info available
Cabinet of Malek
Name Where Now
Abul Kashem Natural death after liberation
Nawajesh Ahmed Vice-President: Bangladesh Muslim League
A.S.M. Sulayman President, Bangladesh Krishak Sromik Party
Obayed Ullah Majumdar Central Sura Member: Bangladesh Khelafat Andolan
Abbas Ali Khan Ex Amir: Bangladesh Jamat-i-Islami
Mewlana A.K.M. Yusuf Ex Secretary: Bangladesh Jamat-i-Islami
Mewlana Ishhak Central Sura Member: Bangladesh Khelafat Andolan
Shamsul Haque No info available
Jasim Uddin Ahmed Natural death after liberation
Angshu Pro Chowdhury Ex minister
A.K. Musarraf Hussain Secretary General: Islamic Democratic League
Mujibur Rahman Head of Bangladesh-Saudi Friendship Committee
East Pakistan delegates who met Yahiya
Name Where Now
Hamidul Haque Chowdhury Owner, Observer Group of Publications
Mahmud Ali Minister, Pakistan Gov't
Dr. Sajjad Hussain Professor: King Abdul Aziz University, Saudi Arabia; now living in Bangladesh
Justice Nurul Islam Ershad Govt's Vice President
Kazi Din Muhammed Professor: Bangla Dept, Dhaka University
Bangalee Members of Pakistani delegates in UN
Name Where Now
Shah Azizur Rahman Gen Zia's ex-Vice President, deceased in 1988
Julmat Ali Khan Ex Vice President: BNP
Razia Fayez Ex Vice President: Bangladesh Muslim League
Dr. Fatima Sadik Retired
Advocate A.T. Saadi Retired advocate, Bangladesh Supreme Court
Central Shanti Committee Liason Office and Officers
Name Office
1. A.I. Ahmed Sher, lives in Ahsan Manjil
2. Saki Sultan, lives in Kosaitola Kutowali Thana
1. Alhaj Nizir Hussain, lives in Jagganath Saha Road
2. S.M. Habibul Haque, lives in Dhanmodhi
3. Nuab Ali Advocate, lives in Central Road Lalbagh Thana
1. Alhaj Siraj Uddin, ex-M.P., lives in Rishikesh Dash Lane
2. Mahtab Uddin Khan, lives in R.K. Mission Road
3. Fayzul Haque, lives in Forash Gonj
4. Tomiz Uddin, lives in Jariatoli Lane
5. Abdur Rashid, lives in Rothkhola Road Sutrapur Thana
1. Iqbal Idris, lives in Indiara Road
2. Mahbubur Rahman Gurha, ex-Tejgaoan Ward Commissioner
3. M.S.M. Habibul Haque, lives in Dhanmondhi
4. Muhammed Nuab Ali, Headmaster: IPH School, Mohakhali Tejgaon Thana
1. Layek Ahmed Siddiki, lives in Mirpur Colorni 1 Mirpur Thana
1. M.A. Baaker, Chairman: Badshah Faisal Istitute, lives in Muhammodpur colony
2. Dr. Oshman, lives in Muhammedpur: A Block
3. Syed Muhammed Farook, lives in Kayde Azam Road, Muhammedpur
4. Shafikur Rahman, Advocate , lives in Jhigatola
5. Abdur Rahim Chowdhury, lives in Dhanmondhi Muhammedpur Thana
1. Ataul Haque Khan, Advocate, Vice President, Bangladesh Muslim League, lives in Mogbazar
2. G.A. Khan, Advocate, Vice-President: Bangladesh Muslim League
3. Professor A. Hashem
4. Julmat Ali Khan, Ex Vice President: BNP, Lives in Purana Paltan
5. Doctor Muhammed Aiyub Ali, lives in Khilgaon Chowdhury Para
6. Advocate A. Wadud Miah, lives in Shantinagar Ramna Thana
Shanti and Kollayan Council Information Office and Officers
Name Office
Muhammed Ali Sarkar, Ret. Engineer Rampura
Mawlovi Idris Ahmed Malibagh, Dhaka2
Muhammed Ali Sarkar Stadium Dhaka
12 Dhanmohdi, Road 5
Mewlana Shah Ismail Ullah Chishti 12, Govinda Dash Road
Mowlovi Tashwar Hussain Khan 2 Bashabari Lane
Mewlana Abdul Majid 66 Patla Khan Lane
12 Nabadhip Boshak Lane
Haji Muhammed Ishak Urdu Road
Rajakar High Command
Name Where Now
A.S.M. Johurul Haque : Director, Rajakhars Businessman in Dhaka
Mofiz Uddin Bhuiyan : Assistant Director, West Range Businessman in Khulna
M.I. Mridha, Tagmaye Khidmat : Assistant Director, Rajakhars Headquarters No info available
M.A. Hasnat : Assistant Director, Central Range No info available
Forid Uddin : Dhaka Town Adjutant Working in Saudi Arabia
P.S. Latrer, Muhammed Yunus(now, Director Islami Bank and Jamat Sura member) was assigned as commander-in-chief, and Mir Kashim Ali(now, Nayeb-e-Amir of Mohanogori Jamat) as head of Chittangong committee. Also, Islami Chattra Shanga's (Now, Islami Chattra Shibir) district presidents were appointed as head of their respective district's Rajakar committee.
Al-Bodor High Command(Jamat-i-Islami's Chattra Shongo(now known as Chattra Shibir)'s central committee)
Name Where Now
Motiur Rahman Nizami: Head of whole Pakistan Assist. Gen. Secretary, Jamat-i-Islami
Ali Ahsan Muhammed Mujahid : Head of East Pakistan Amir: Dhaka Mohanogori Jamat and Director of Weekly Sunar Bangla
Mir Kahem Ali: Chittagong head to start with, later 3rd in rank Dhaka Mohanagari Jamt Nayebe Amir, Director of Rabaat-e-Alaam(Bangladesh) and member, Ibn Sina Trust
Muhammed Yunus Jamt Majlish-e-Sura member, Director of Islami Bank, director of Islamic Somaj Kollyan Somiti, President of Muslim Businessmen's Society
Muhammed Kamrujjaman: Chief Organizor of Bodor Bahini Central Propaganda Secretary of Jamat-i-Islami and Editor of Weekly Sunar Bangla
Ashraf Hussain: Established Bodor Bahini and head of Mymensingh district Businessman in Dhaka
Muhammed Shamsul Haque: Head of Dhaka City Member: Majlish-e-Sura, Jamat-i-Islami
Mustafa Sawkat Imran: One of the leader of Dhaka city Never found after the liberation war
Ashrafujjaman Khan: member of Dhaka City High command and 'Chief Executor' (PRODAN JALLAD) of systematic killing of the intellectuals Now, working in Saudi Arabia
A.S.M. Ruhul Kuddus: One of the leader of Dhaka city Member: Majlish-e-Sura, Jamat-i-Islami
Sardar Abdus Salam: Head of Dhaka district
Kurram Ja Murad International Jamat leader in London, coorinates liason between Jamat in different countries
Abdul Bari: Head of Jamalpur district Businessman in Dhaka
Abdul Hai Faruki: Head of Rajshahi district Businessman in Dubai
Abdul Jaher Muhammed Naser: Head of Chittagong district Saudi Ambassador's personal assistant
Matiur Rahmann Khan: Head of Khulna district works in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Chowdhury Mayeen uddin : 'Operation in-charge' (main killer) of systematic killing of the intellectuals Lives in London and Editor of Jamat's Weekly Dawaat and leader of London-based Jamat-crony, Dawatul Islam
Noor Muhammed Mollik: One of the leader of Dhaka city No info available
A.K. Muhammed Ali: One of the leader of Dhaka city No info available
Majharul Islam: Head of Rajshahi district No info available
Tikka Khan's Education Reform Committee

Name Where Now
Dr. Syed Sajjad Hussain, VC: Dhaka University Professor: King Abdul Aziz University, Saudi Arabia; now living in Bangladesh
Dr. Hasan Jaman, Political Science Professor: Dhaka University Died while working at Saudi Arabia
Dr. Muhor Ali, History Professor: Dhaka University Works in London, Runs Islamic Institute
A.K.M. Abdul Rahman< TD> >Math Professor: Dhaka University
Dr. Abdul Bari, VC: Rajshahi University Chairman: Dhaka University 'Monjuri' Commission, Member of Governing Body: Islamic Foundation
Dr. Saifuddin Juardar deceased
Dr. Mokbul Hussain Retired
Collaborators: Dhaka University Teachers and Employees were given mendatory leave after war

Name Where Now
Begum Akhtar Imam, Provost: Rokya Hall Retired, living in Dhaka
Dr. Kazi Din Muhammed, Bangla Dept Fired by Dhaka University Syndicate, now Professor: Bangla Dept, Dhaka University
Dr. Muhammed Mustafizur Rahman, Arabic Dept Professor, Dhaka University
Dr. Fatima Sadik, Arabic Dept Kicked out of the University by Dhaka University Syndicate, now Retired
Dr. Gulam Wahed Chowdhury, Political Science Dept Owner of Garments factory in Dhaka
Dr. Rashid Ujjaman, Political Science Dept Kicked out of the University by Dhaka University Syndicate, now working in US
Dr. A.K.M. Shahid Ullah, Political Science Dept Professor: Bangla Dept, Dhaka University
A.K.M. Jamal Uddin Mustafa, Political Science Dept Kicked out of the University by Dhaka University Syndicate, now businessman in Dhaka
Dr.Muhammed Afsar Uddin, Sociology Dept Professor, Dhaka University
Dr. Mir Fokorujjaman, Psychology Science Dept deceased in 1987
Dr. Muhammed Shamsul Haque, Physics Dept Professor: Dhaka University
Dr. Abdul Jabbar, Pharmacy Dept Professor: Dhaka University
Dr. Mahbub Uddin Ahmed, Statistics Dept Businessman in London
Muhammed Obaydullah(known as Askar Ibn Shaaik), Statistics Dept Kicked out of the University by Dhaka University Syndicate, now playright for Radio and TV in Bangladesh
Muhammed Habib Ullah, Education Research Dept Lives in Pakistan
Adbul kader Miah, Education Research Dept Kicked out of the University by Dhaka University Syndicate, now wherabouts unknown
Dr. Shafia Khatun, Education Research Dept Professor: Dhaka University, Ershad's ex-minister
Lt. Colonel(ret.) Matiur Rahman, Health institute Retired in Dhaka
Atikujjaman Khan, Journalism Dept was professor: Dhaka University, now deceased
Dr. Aftab Ahmed Siddiki, Urdu/Farsi Dept Lives in Pakistan
Fazlul Kader, Urdu/Farsi Dept Kicked out of the University by Dhaka University Syndicate, now wherabouts unknown
Nurul Momen, Law Department Retired in Dhaka
Dr. S.M. Imam Uddin,Islamic History Dept Lives in Pakistan
S.D. Dolil Uddin, Care Taker: Dhaka University Works in Dhaka University
Muhammed Mahbubul Alam, Botany Dept Lives in Pakistan
Faizul Jalal uddin, Botany Dept Kicked out of the University by Dhaka University Syndicate, now wherabouts unknown
P.S. Many of these collaborator teachers were directly related to the systematic killing of the intellectuals. Their names were mentioned in the infamous diary of the Al-Badar Bahini "Chief Executionar" of intellectuals, Asrafujjaman.
Name Where Now
Nasir Ahmed, Secretary: Education Research Institute wherabouts unknown
Johir Khan, Painter of Chief Engineer's Office Kicked out of the University by Dhaka University Syndicate, now wherabouts unknown
Shah Hahan, Servant of Engineering Office wherabouts unknown
Muhammed Mustafa, Servant of Solim Ullah Hall Kicked out of the University by Dhaka University Syndicate, now wherabouts unknown
Collaborators: Rajshahi University Teachers were given mendatory leave after war
Name Where Now
Dr. Abdul Bari, V.C. Rajshahi University was Chairman of University 'Monjuri' Commission
Dr. Gulam Saklayen, Bangla Dept. Reader Now, Professor of Bangla Dept: Rajshshi University
Azizul Haque, Bangla Dept. Now, Professor of Bangla Dept: Rajshshi University
Shiekh Ataur Rahman, Bangla Dept. Now, Professor of Bangla Dept: Rajshshi University
Abdur Rahim Juardar, University Register Now, retired in Dhaka
Collaborators: Rajshahi University Teachers were arrested after war
Name Where Now
Mokbul Hussain, Chairman of Commerce Dept. Now, professor of Commerce Dept: Rajshshi University
Ahmed Muhammed Patel, Chairman of Geography Dept. Now, lives in Pakistan
Solayman Mondol, Chairman of Economics Dept. Now, professor of Economics Dept: Rajshshi University
Wasim Bari Baghi, Professor of Psychology Dept. Now, lives in Pakistan
Zillur Rahman, Reader of Law Dept. Now, professor of Law Dept: Rajshshi University
Kolim A. Sasarami, Professor of Linguistics Dept. Now, professor of Linguistics Dept: Rajshshi University
Collaborators: Rajshahi University Teacherswere accused as collaborators and absconded after the war
Name Where Now
Ahmed Ullah Khanprofessor of English Dept Now, professor of English Dept: Rajshshi University
Ibn AhmedOne of the Register Ex Register of Islamic University, Kustia
Collaborators: Bureacrats, arrested just after the liberation war
Name Role
Dr. A.M. Malek Governor
Abul Kashem Minister
Nowajish Ahmed Minister
Abbas Ali Khan Minister
Akhtar Uddin Ahmed Minister
Muhammed Ishak Minister
Jasim Uddin Minister
A.K.M. Yusuf Minister
Solayman Minister
Mujaffar Hussain Chief Secretary
N.N. Kazim Home Secretary
S.A. Reza Commissionar
M.A.K. Chowdhury IGP
M.A.R. Arif Additional IGP
Dr. M.M. Hasan DIG
Mujaffar Ahmed DLG Secretary
Mufti Masudur Rahman Education Secretary
Humayun Fayez Rasul Information Secretary
Hasan Johir Planning Commission member
Aslam Iqbal Joint Secretary: Information
Captain Khaled Ahmed OSD: Home ministry
Captain Aktar Uddin Ahmed OSD: SNGO ministry
Lt. Commandar A.A. Nasim Joint Secretary: RWORT
Muhammed Ashraf ADC: Dhaka
Mohiullah Shah ADC: Dhaka
S.K. Mahmud SP: Chittagong
A. Irfan Ali SP: Khulna
Alman Khalik SP: Dhaka
Abbas Khan AIGP
Rana Mushtak SP, Panjab Cantonment
S.M. Nawab DIG: Police
Lt. Colonel Gulam Ahmed Chowdhury Deputy Chief Engineer
Johurul Haque Deputy Director: Rajakars
Doctor A. Baseth Dhaka Medical College
Collaborators: Bureacrats, fired(out of 53) after being accused of war crimes and collaboration
Name/Role Wherabouts
M. Wazid Ali Khan, Railway Board chairman Deceased in 1974
Muhammed Lutfur Rahman, Jute Board chairman Brought back again as a secretary, now retired
M.G. Dastogir, Deputy Governor of State Bank never came back after 72
Anam Ahmed Chowdhury, Joint Secretary of Commerce Brought back again as a secretary
Dr. Muhammed Muhtazuddin Miah, Principal Scientific Officer, Neuclear Power Commission Brought back again to work in Neuclear Agricultural Institute
Asrafujjaman Khan, Director: Radio retired
Dr. Kamal Uddin Ahmed, Principal of Physics Dept. Dhaka University Brought back again to become professor of Chemistry
Dr. Abdul Haque, chairman of Jessore Education Board wherabouts unknown
Dr. Hafez Ahmed, Principal: Dhaka College wherabouts unknown
Samsuddin Ahmed, Commissioner: Rajshshi Division wherabouts unknown
Muhammed Habibir Rahman, Chief Election Commissioner wherabouts unknown
Muhammed Abu Henna, Chief Hydrographer wherabouts unknown
< Abul>, Professor: Dhaka Medical College and Hospital wherabouts unknown
Collaborators: Bureacrats, arrested after being accused of war crimes and collaboration(partial list)
Name/Role Wherabouts
Rashidul Hasan, Deputy Commissioner: Khulna wherabouts unknown
Toslim Uddin Ahmed, OSD: Takurga/Dinajpur wherabouts unknown
Syed Iqbal Ahmed, Deputy Director: Dhaka Radio wherabouts unknown
A.R.M. Fazlur Rahman, Deputy Secretary: Civil Affairs wherabouts unknown
Gulam Robbani Khan, Deputy Director: Rajshshi Radio wherabouts unknown
Abu Shahadat, Regional Director: Dhaka Radio wherabouts unknown
Source: Akattorer Ghatak O Dalal-ra: Kay Khutay?
Published by Muktizuddha Chetona Bikash Kendra, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Some information may have changed, but relevance of the information from a historic perspective is still important.
Last Modified: 09/13/2007 14:18:34
Bangladesh Liberation War 1971: Genocide
Pakistani War Criminals
Editorial and Commentary:
Why should Bangladesh raise the issue of genocide?
By - A.H. Jaffor Ullah
Z.A. Khan's memoirs "The way it was" spilled quite a few names who were involved in gratuitous merciless killings of Bengalis in occupied Bangladesh. The swiftness with which the genocide was carried out by Pakistani Army had no parallel in the annals of mankind. Despite the publicity it generated during the short nine-month period, Bengali leader Sheikh Mujib was almost mum about it. Perhaps Sheikh Mujib thought rebuilding the war-ravaged infrastructure of his nation was more important at the time than finding out among Pakistanis who- did-what in 1971.
Perhaps it was a mistake of monumental proportion that the leadership of the newly formed nation never asked for a trial of Pakistani generals and officers who were involved in extermination of three million Bengalis, never mind the rape of a quarter million Bengali women.
In 1975, a military general who came to power in Bangladesh through violence never showed any interest whatsoever in this subject matter. To the contrary, this general was alleged to have worked behind the scene establishing a good relationship with his masters from the olden days. After the violent over throw of this general, another Bangladesh General ruled the country with tight iron grip from 1982 through 1991. During his reign too, Bangladesh Genocide was very much considered to be an anathema. As such, the government never did pursue to raise the consciousness about the wanton killings of 1971. Like his predecessor, this cagey general also looked other the way around when question of Bangladesh Genocide was raised by the intelligentsia of the nation.
The democracy finally did return to Bangladesh in 1991 and we thought that this time around the question of Bangladesh Genocide would be raised by the Prime Minister. But that did not happen. The Prime Minister was more inclined to forge a close relationship with Pakistan than ask the genocide question to redress the issue of wanton killing by Pakistani army.
After a long twenty-one year period Sheikh Mujib's party came into power in Bangladesh through adult franchise and we enthusiastically looked forward to the leadership of Awami League for raising the genocide issue. Mrs. Hasina Wazed, the Prime Minister half-heartedly asked that question to Mr. Nawaz Sharif in 1997. There were some rumblings in Pakistani press, but that was all; no progress was made in the past two years. In February 1999 when Pakistani Prime Minister did visit Dhaka to attend a conference of eight Muslim nations the Prime Minister of Bangladesh did not pose that question to Mr. Sharif, perhaps not to embarrass the Prime Minister. However, there were enough static in Dhaka and elsewhere to demand an apology from Pakistan for Bangladesh Genocide. Some civic organizations in Dhaka were stridently protesting while the leaders of eight Muslim nations met in a close door session.
I presume this genocide issue is not going to vanish in the thin air as most Pakistani politicians and military leaders would seem to think. The Internet had so far been proven to be an extremely effective media to educate and disseminate all the Bengalis on the issue of Bangladesh Genocide. Bengalis from both Bangladesh and West Bengal were affected by the gruesome events of 1971. Perhaps the genocide issue will bind the entire Bengali communities all over the world because disproportionately more Hindus suffered in the hands of Pakistani soldiers.
Pakistani government should know that Bangladesh Genocide is a touchy issue with all the Bengalis and it is going to stay that way in the foreseeable future till Pakistan offers an apology on behalf of his rogue military.
Mrs. Hasina Wazed should come to her senses knowing that Pakistan is not a major trading partner of Bangladesh. Perhaps Bangladesh should put pressure to Pakistan telling them point blank to apologize for gruesome killings of Bengalis in 1971, or else face the consequence. The consequence being cut off diplomatic relations between the two countries. Bangladesh will survive rather well without being cahoots with a pariah nation, which still refuses to come to terms with her past misdeeds.
Appendix One
A partial list of Pakistani military officers who committed Genocide in Bangladesh in 1971
Here is a list of Pakistani military personnel involved in mass killings in occupied Bangladesh from March 25 through December 16, 1971. This partial list was prepared solely from reading the accounts of Brigadier Z.A. Khan who himself was an accomplice in Pakistan's genocidal military. Brigadier Khan's account was published in News From Bangladesh in early March in seven part series. This ex-military officer of Pakistan wrote in vivid details the untold tales of destruction and subjugation of Bengali nation. The surviving ex- military officers from the list should be brought to justice because they have committed crime against humanity. A few of the generals and most young officers of the day are still alive in Pakistan. They should know that while they had all but forgotten their misdeeds the Bengalis remember them very well. Like holocaust survivor who hunted the Nazis till this day, the Bengalis will also do the same to bring these criminals to justice. South Asia will be a better place for our descendents once these criminals are brought to justice - alive or posthumously.
Here is the partial list:
The Generals
1. General Yahya Khan, military president of Pakistan in 1971. He refused to transfer power to Awami League after the general election of December 10, 1970, when Awami League had won the general election.
2. General Abdul Hamid Khan, Chief of Army Staff (CAS), was one of the architects of Bangladesh Genocide. This general, popularly known as General Hamid (or Hameed) was in Dacca before March 26, 1971, working on a military plan to terrorize Bengalis. He also visited occupied Bangladesh several times to see firsthand the progress of the killing machine.
3. Lt. General Gul Hassan Khan, Chief of General Staff (CGS), Pakistani Army. Contrary to what he might have said, he was one of the principal architects of Bangladesh Genocide. His very presence in troubled land of Chittagong during the early days of Bengali resistance proves beyond any shadow of doubt that he was an active planner of Bangladesh Genocide.
4. Lt. General Tikka Khan, military chief in East Pakistan during March through December 1971. Planner and Chief Executioner of Bangladesh Genocide. He later became Governor of East Pakistan.
5. Lt. General A.A. Niazi, Planner and Executioner of Bangladesh Genocide. He joined the occupation force later. His soldiers burned the villages and killed thousands of Bengalis throughout rural Bangladesh
6. Lt. General Sahibzada Yaqub Khan.
7. Major General Rao Farman, Military Intelligence Chief in East Pakistan during March through December, 1971. Planner and Executioner of Bangladesh Genocide.
8. Major General A. O. Mitha. This general was everywhere in occupied Bangladesh causing destruction and death. This person had practically managed the killing machine of Pakistani army in erstwhile East Pakistan. He joined the army high command in Dacca in early March 1971. He was brought from West Pakistan solely for the death and destruction of Bengalis in East Pakistan.
9. Major General Khadim Hussain Raja. He suspected Brigadier Mazumdar, a Bengali officer, of siding with Bengalis. He came all the way from west Pakistan to arrest Brigadier Mazumdar. He later became chief of Chittagong operation for Pak Army.
10. Major General Akbar, Director General, ISI. He helped Pak Army carry out the Genocide by providing intelligence data. Major General M. Rahim Khan took control 14 Division and replaced Major General Khadim Hussain Raja. His forces were responsible for all the killings done in Mymensing-Dacca-Jessore area. This general was a first rate executioner of Bangla Genocide. He was responsible for atrocities committed along the Dacca-Bhairav Bazaar Railway line.
11. Major General Rahim Khan, Commander of 14 Division, was stationed in Dacca. His officers and soldiers were very much involved in Army-led Bangladesh Genocide. In June 1971, he was transferred from being the Divisional Chief of 14 Division to Martial law Headquarters in Dacca.
The Officers
1. Brigadier Ghulam Jilani Khan, Chief of Staff (COS) of Eastern Command. He was an active person and was a part of planner of Bangladesh Genocide. He was a key person who knew every bit detail of the plan to exterminate Bengalis in the occupied land. During liberation period (in June 1971) he was promoted to the rank of Major General and was given the position of Director General, ISI in West Pakistan.
2. Brigadier Jehanzeb Arbab (later become Lt. General in Pakistan) aided the abduction of Sheikh Mujib.
3. Brigadier Iqbal Shafi, 53rd Brigade assaulted Bengalis in the Feni area. Later he moved to Chittagong area to help crush Bengali resistance.
4. Brigadier Asghar Hussain, 205 Brigade, was active in Chittagong area.
5. Brigadier Hesky Baig was very active in the Chittagong Port Area.
6. Brigadier Sherullah Beg was the Commander of Special Service Group and was stationed in Dacca.
7. Brigadier Ghulam Muhammad took over the command of Special Service Group from Brigadier Sherullah Beg sometime in May 1971.
8. Brigadier N.A. Hussain was the Chief of 27 Brigade in Mymensingh. All killings in that part of occupied land including Madhupur Garh was done by his soldiers.
9. Lt. Colonel Z.A. Khan (later become Brigadier in Pakistan) was very active in Chittagong and Chittagong Hill Tracts Area. He was the Commander of 3 Commando Battalion in Rangamati under Division 14.
10. Lt. Colonel Yakub Malik, Commanding Officer 53 Field Regiment Artillery, was very active in Comilla area.
11. Lt. Colonel A.H. Fatmi, Commanding Officer of 20 Baluch
12. Lt. Colonel Rathore of Signal Corps was active in Chittagong city area.
13. Lt. Colonel Shakur Jan was very active in Bhairav Bazaar area. He took active part in landing Pak army to Ashuganj side of Bhairav Bazaar railway bridge.
14. Lt. Colonel S.M. Naeem, Commanding Officer 39 Baluch Command, was very active in Brahamanbaria in late May 1971.
15. Lt. Colonel Jaffar Hussain visited occupied Bangladesh from Rawalpindi in June 1971. He was with Major General Mitha while visiting Dacca. He toured all over occupied land with the Major General.
16. Lt. Colonel Abdur Rehman (later was promoted to Brigadier in Pakistan) was the GSO 1 (Training) at eastern Command in Dhaka.
17. Lt. Colonel Iqbal Nazir Waraich came in June/July 1971 to take charge of 3 Commando Battalion in Rangamati.
18. Lt. Colonel Hanif Malik became the Commander of 2 Battalion in June/July 1971.
19. Colonel S. D. Ahmad. This person worked at the Martial Law Headquarters, Dacca at the time of crisis in March, 26, 1971. He was one of the executioners of Bangladesh genocide. He was involved in planning the abduction of Sheikh Mujib by the Pak military.
20. Colonel Akbar (later become Brigadier in Pakistan) was the GS of Eastern Command in Dacca.
21. Colonel Shigri, Officiating Commandant of the East Bengal Center in Chittagong
22. Major Shujauddin Butt was a part of Baluch Regiment but worked in Martial law Headquarters. At this headquarters dissident Bengalis picked up from all parts of Dacca were brought in. Most Bengalis never did come alive once brought to this place for questioning.
23. Major Bilal, Jangju Company, Pak Army, aided in planning Sheikh Mujib's abduction. Also, he took part in disarming 4 east Bengal Regiment.
24. Major Sultan (later become Lt. Colonel). He was the brigade major in Comilla.
25. Major Salman Ahmad, Ebrahim Company Commander. He was very familiar with the Headquarters of East Pakistan Rifles. He helped Pak Army to raid E.P. Rifles Headquarters.
26. Major Mohammad Iqbal (later become Brigadier in Pakistan), Ghazi Company Commander, was active in the Chittagong area.
27. Major Anees, 20 Baluch and 24 FF, was in Chittagong city.
28. Major Hedayet Ullah Jan, commander of 2 Commando battalion, was very active in Rangamati. He was aiding Lt. Colonel Z.A. Khan in Hill Tracts area to go after East Pakistan Riflemen who sided with Mukti Bahini.
29. Major Salman, 3 Commando Battalion, worked in the Chittagong area as an intelligence gathering agent for Pak Army.
30. Major Tariq Mahmood who later became Brigadier in Pakistan was Officer in Command, Parachute Training School, Dacca. He helped with aerial mobilization of Pak Army all across the occupied Bangladesh.
31. Major Beg, Ordnance Corps, was stationed in Chittagong.
32. Major Nadir was originally with Ordnance Corps but later transferred to the command of Lt. Colonel Z.A. Khan in Chittagong Hill Tracts. He was kept in Dacca by his supervisor, Lt. Col. Khan.
33. Captain Humayun. He also aided in planning Sheikh Mujib's abduction.
34. Captain Saeed, aided in the abduction of Sheikh Mujib.
35. Captain Sajjad Akbar of Hamza Company, stationed in Commilla.
36. Captain Kayani, 20 Baluch line, worked in Saeedpur-Bogra area.
37. Captain Zaidi (later become Brigadier in Pakistan), 2 Company Commando, also raided E.P. Rifles Headquarters.
38. Captain Parvez (later become Lt. Colonel in Pakistan), 2 Commando Battalion, was active in Chittagong area.
39. Captain Zahid (later become Brigadier in Pakistan), the GSO 3 of 53 Brigade in Rangamati.
40. Captain Munir worked with Lt. Colonel Z.A. Khan in Rangamati.
41. Lieutenant Haider of Hamza Company, Commilla.
42. Lt. Commander Akhtar (later became Captain) who secured Patenga Airport from E.P. Rifles
Non-Commissioned Officers:
1. Havaldar Major Khan Wazir. He was a member of a team to abduct Sheikh Mujib. He also physically assaulted Sheikh Mujib.
2. Subedar Ramzan was active in Kaptai Area.
3. Subedar Ramzan aided Captain Munir in Rangamati.
4. Subedar Major Zardad Khan was a part of 2 Commando Battalion stationed in Dacca.
Air Force Officers
1. Squadron Leader Abdul Munim Khan. This officer ran C-130 transport plane all across East Pakistan transporting Pakistani soldiers and food items.
2. Squadron Leader Shuaib Alam was Security in charge of Air Observer Unit, Tejgaon Airport.
Navy Officers
1. Commodore R.A. Mumtaz, stationed at Chittagong was the chief of navy in East Pakistan. Pakistan Navy aided the Army in the field of intelligence gathering, interrogating suspected Bengali freedom fighter.
2. Commander Tariq Kamal Khan (later he became Admiral and Chief of Naval Staff, Pakistan Navy) was stationed at Chittagong. He was the commander of PNS Jehangir, the destroyer. He helped the military with communication gears and firing at E.P. Rifle headquarters to crush Bengali resistance in Chittagong area.
3. Lt. Commander Shamoon Alam Khan was also working for ISI. He also helped Pak Army to recapture Rangamati.
The above list was prepared from the memoirs "The way it was" written by Brigadier Z.A. Khan of Pakistani Army. As a commander of a Commando Force, Brigadier Z.A. Khan was very active in the systematic extermination of Bengalis all over occupied Bangladesh in 1971.
Source: This article reprinted from NEWS FROM BANGLADESH of March 16, 1999 for wider dissemination. Thank you. W.Zaman.
Source: Internet Posting in newsgroup soc.culture.bangladesh by W.Zaman